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Hooke's law

Hooke's law is one of the laws affiliated with physics, specifically mechanics and the properties of materials. The law was derived from an experiment that was named after the law, while the name was also named in honor of the English scientist Robert Hook who deduced it in 1676 AD. Hook sought to show the relationship between applied forces The spring and its elasticity, and Hooke's law is the first classic law that explains flexibility and the ability of bodies to return to their original shape, and the law expresses the relationship between the force affecting the elastic bodies and the change in their length, and the flexibility of the objects that experience applied to it means that these materials have the ability to return to their basic form After being subjected to deformation by the force applied to it, the deformation is by changing the size or length of the objects, and the law states that the amount of change in length is directly proportional to the amount of force acting in the spring, and the text has another formula which is that the force needed to pull or compress the spring from a certain distance is directly proportional to With that distance, the law has several applications, such as: [1]

 Mechanical watch. 

 Balance wheel.

 Manometer device.

 Seismology.

 Phonetics.

 Some engineering sciences.

Hawke's experiment in the laboratory 

To implement the Hawke's law experiment in any physical laboratory, we need the following tools: [2] 

Stopwatch.

A helical spring has two hooks at the end.

 A group of heavyweights known to weigh.

 Metric ruler.

 Fixed stand.

 To carry out the experiment in practice, we follow the following steps: Hanging the spring vertically and hanging from the fixed stand.

 Using the ruler, the initial reading of the spring is taken without any weight on it, and this reading expresses the basic length of the spring, i.e. 1.

 A first block is placed on the spring in the counterweight, and a new reading of the indicator is taken, then using a ruler to determine the amount of elongation of the spring. 

Repeats the weights to the weight block, with their values, the spring values and the amount of elongation that occurs each time.

 The results and readings are arranged in a table, then graphically represented, with the force readings placed on the x-axis and elongation on the y-axis. The shape of the curve should be a straight line, and its slope is equal to the force constant a.

The formulation of Hooke's law

 algebraically expresses Hook's law mathematically according to the following law: s = a * (l-2-l1); The symbol s expresses the influential force that changes the dimensions of the body and is measured in units of newton, and the symbol a is the constant force, which is measured in units of newton per meter, and the difference in the symbols L1 and L2 is an expression of the displacement between the position of the new body and its original position; That is, for 1 is expressed as the basic length, for 2 the length is expressed after expansion, or according to the following law: s = kx; As s is the force of restoration or the deformed force of the body, and k is the elastic elasticity and is measured in units of newton per meter, and x is the difference between the position of the new object and its original location, whether it is elongated or compressed.

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Scientist Robert Hooke

 Robert Hooke is a British scientist and philosopher, and one of the most important architects in Gresham. He was born on the eighteenth of July 1635 AD on the English island of White, and died on the third of March of 1703 AD, and his father is Representative John Hook and his mother is Sisley Gates, and in In 1648, when he was 13 years old, he went to the capital, London, to learn to draw, and he was good at drawing, but because of the sensitivity of Robert and the fumes of London in which he was affected, he decided to leave drawing lessons, and then joined Westminster School where he learned to manufacture musical instruments, and learn Latin languages, Greek and Hebrew, and after completing his music education, he moved to Oxford and entered Christchurch College and worked with the scientist Boyle as his assistant, and Boyle is known for his natural gas law, which is called in his name, and after a short period Hook began to contribute many books, and in 1655 AD Hook built an air pump, and in In 1660 AD, he discovered his law of elasticity, and the law states that the expansion of any solid body, such as metals and wood, is proportional to the force applied to it. This law has become the basis for all studies concerned with understanding elastic materials, stress and stress properties, and it was designed He spent an hour laying down his law and studying it, and in 1661 AD he published a book on poetic attraction. [4]

The most important achievements of the world Robert Hook:

 The scientist Robert Hooke made a machine through which he could observe Mars and Jupiter and called them Gregorian approximations. He was also a great supporter of the theory of biological evolution. As he relied on fossils in his study of biological development, and studied the phenomenon of refraction through his conclusion of the wave theory of light, his work in the field of space also helped to infer the law of inverse square gravity, which represents the relationship that governs the movement of the planets, the one that Newton studied and developed later. [5] Among the most important achievements of Robert Hooke was the development of a modern definition of the cellular composition of plants, and in his study of cells he found that cork contains pores or cells, and he believed that cells are fibrous strings of a cork tree, and he thought that cells are only present in plant structures, and after In-depth studies for a period of nine months issued a micrographic book in 1665 AD, in which he provided accurate descriptions of what he observed through the telescope, and described the cork cells he saw with box-like structures, the first to write a book describing observations recorded in the telescope, and the first to Use the word cell when describing a microscopic structure. [4] [6]

References:

  1. ↑ Matt Williams (16-2-2015), "What is Hooke's Law?"، phys, Retrieved 30-9-2019. Edited.
  2. ↑ JL Stanbrough (6-11-2002), "Physics 1 Dynamics Experiment How Does A Spring Scale Work? Hooke's Law"، batesville, Retrieved 30-9-2019. Edited.
  3.  ↑ "What is Hooke's Law?", khanacademy, Retrieved 30-9-2019. Edited.
  4.  ^ أ ب Mary Bellis (3-7-2019), " Biography of Robert Hooke, the Man Who Discovered Cells "، thoughtco, Retrieved 30-9-2019. Edited. 
  5. ^ أ ب " Robert Hooke ", britannica,24-7-2019، Retrieved 30-9-2019. Edited.
  6.  ↑" 4.1C: Cell Theory ", bio.libretexts,9-9-2019، Retrieved 30-9-2019. Edited.
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