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ENERGY CONVERSION

Energy overview

Energy is defined (English: Energy) as the ability or ability to accomplish a job, and energy has been utilized in modern societies due to finding ways to help transfer it from one form to another in order to take advantage of the new form of it to accomplish a job, as it is made use of Various forms of energy for many jobs; Such as cooking food on a stove, lighting buildings, turning water into ice in freezers, moving cars on the roads, and moving boats in the water, and there are many forms of energy that fall under two basic categories as follows:

Potential Energy: Also called the energy card , which is stored energy.

Kinetic Energy: is the movement of different substances. Like the movement of atoms, molecules, waves, electrons, and other materials and object

Energy shifts

Energy Conversion is defined as the transformation of energy forms that are obtained directly from nature into other forms that are utilized by man, and energy transformation occurs in most of the processes that occur in the universe continuously, and from the processes of Energy conversion includes the following

  • The conversion of solar energy into chemical energy in plants through photosynthesis, as photosynthesis requires both sunlight, water and carbon dioxide to make food.
  • Converting the mechanical energy of waterfalls to electromagnetic energy in generators.
  • Convert the chemical energy stored in gasoline into thermal energy and then into kinetic energy to move the car.
  • Converting solar energy into electrical energy through the solar cells, and making use of that       energy in lighting or operating devices.
  • It is mentioned that when converting one form of energy to another in any way, the amount of energy in its primary form is equal to the amount of the new form of energy, so the energy is preserved during any system in which the energy is transferred from one form to another, and some energy transfers involve a single conversion Energy, and some involve multiple shifts of energy.

Mono transformations of energy:  

One form of energy is converted to another in order to take advantage of the new form in mono transformations, where the transformation process takes place directly in one step, [Examples that illustrate some of the mono transformations include the following

  • Convert electrical energy to thermal energy in the toaster for toasting bread.
  •  Converts electrical energy into electromagnetic energy in the phone to complete calls. 
  • Converting the chemical energy stored in food after eating it into kinetic energy in the human body moves the muscles. 
  • Converting chemical energy in food after eating it into thermal energy inside the body in order to maintain its temperature. 
  • Converting electromagnetic energy into electrical energy inside the photoelectric cells. 
  •  Conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy inside batteries 
  • Converts electrical energy into heat energy inside the heat coolers. 
  • Conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy in pressure electricity generation processes (English: Piezoelectric).

Multiple transformations of energy

A series of transformations occurs in order to obtain a form that can be used in multiple transformations of energy. Examples include the following

Energy transformations in a matchstick: where kinetic energy is converted into thermal energy which stimulates the molecules to release their stored chemical energy, which in turn converts into more thermal energy and into electromagnetic energy that appears as visible light. 

Energy transformations in the car's engine: A spark is produced from the electric energy in the engine that liberates the chemical energy stored in the fuel; Which leads to the expansion of fuel and pressure on the car parts, and the continuous and increasing pressure on the car parts leads to the turning of the wheels as a result of converting the chemical energy into mechanical energy. 

Diesel cycle: in which the chemical energy is converted into mechanical energy after passing through a series of reactions as follows:

  Chemical energy → Thermal energy → Mechanical energy → Mechanical energy.

Rankin cycle inside steam turbines: in which multiple forms of energy are converted into electrical energy after passing through a series of reactions as follows

 Chemical energy → Thermal energy → Mechanical energy → Electrical energy. Nuclear energy → thermal energy → mechanical energy → electrical energy. Solar energy → thermal energy → mechanical energy → electrical energy. Geothermal energy → thermal energy → mechanical energy → electric energy.

 Brighton cycle inside gas turbines or jet engines: in which multiple forms of energy are converted into electrical energy after going through a series of reactions as follows:

 Chemical energy → Thermal energy → Mechanical energy → Electrical energy. Nuclear energy → thermal energy → mechanical energy → electrical energy. Solar energy → thermal energy → mechanical energy → electrical energy.

 Converting the mechanical energy possessed by wind, waves, and tides to electrical energy: after passing through a series of interactions as follows

Kinetic energy → mechanical energy → mechanical energy → mechanical energy → electrical energy.

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Examples of energy transitions

The conversion of energy from one form to another is often resorted to, as the primary forms of energy available may not achieve the required benefit, and from the energy transformations that can occur are the following

Converting electrical energy into mechanical energy for movement: This process is carried out inside many machines, such as the electric train. Initially, the electric train is run by electric energy obtained from power plants, then the electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy for movement by the electric motor of the train.

Converting electric energy into thermal energy: It is the most common form of energy conversion, as it takes place inside most household appliances. Such as a hair dryer, electric heater, and toaster, and some devices that are not intended for the production of heat energy may waste part of the energy when it is converted and produce it as heat when touching the devices; Like television or computer.

Converting thermal energy into radiant energy: The lanterns are used as a source of lighting, where the process of converting the thermal energy resulting from the flame into radiation energy by soaking a piece of fabric woven with heavy metal oxides, so that the piece of light is lit by the heat of the flame without burning.

 Converting thermal energy into mechanical energy for movement: Many electrical devices contain a thermostat that regulates the temperature of the device, by containing a bimetal tape , and one of the two metals expands more than the other at a certain temperature, which causes the tape to curve, and with the curvature of the tape is interrupted Electricity flows to the machine and stops working.

Converting the mechanical energy of the movement into electrical energy: by using manual energy generators, where the mechanical energy is stored as a flexible energy stored in the spring, and when the stored energy is released, the spring exerts a force on a crystal surface so the surface is charged electrically, and after the accumulation of a sufficient amount of charges on all Crystalline surfaces, the spark is transferred between all those charged surfaces, which leads to the production of electrical energy.

Converting the mechanical energy of the movement to thermal energy: The mechanical energy of the movement is converted to thermal energy as a result of friction after rubbing the different surfaces together, and this can be done by using an electric drill consisting of two blocks of pressed wood and a metal tube filled with water to cause friction between them, where a quantity is placed From the water inside the metal tube, then close it with a rubber stopper, and when the two blocks of pressed wood and the metal tube filled with water rub, the mechanical energy of the movement is converted into thermal energy and the water turns into steam, then the steam spreads out from the metal tube and cork and returns to the conversion of heat energy into mechanical energy.

Conversion of radiant energy into electrical energy: The radiant energy obtained from sunlight is converted into electrical energy using solar cells, as it produces electricity for use in operating many devices and lighting electric lights .

Conversion of electric energy into radiant energy: electrical energy can be converted into radiant energy, for example is a light bulb that converts electrical energy into light and is a form of radiant energy.

 Magnetic energy conversion to the gravitational energy: When you put Magnetizing over each other so that Oqtabhma similar be Mtusbandh, arise force repulsion between them and Eptaadan from each other, and in the case of an attempt to influence the magnet upper pay toward the magnet bottom and then edit it , will convert part of the magnetic energy into mechanical energy and part The other one will switch to gravitational potential energy.

 Converting the potential chemical energy into electrical energy: Batteries are the most common device for storing energy in them, as chemical energy is stored inside them and then converted to electrical energy when the battery is running.

Converting the underlying chemical energy into radiation energy: light bulbs emit visible light in addition to an amount of infrared radiation, but in contrast, visible light can be produced from some chemically induced light reactions (in English: Chemiluminescent Reactions) without emitting quantities of infrared radiation.

Conversion of radiant energy into potential chemical energy: Rays of nuclear energy from the sun are spread in all directions, which is a form of radiant energy, and part of it is leaked into the atmosphere, which is absorbed by plants and converted into potential chemical energy in the form of carbohydrates.

Converting the underlying chemical energy into thermal energy: The stored chemical energy is converted into both visible and invisible thermal and radiant energy when combining different materials. This form of transformation occurs greatly when burning natural gas, oil , and coal, and previous transfers are considered to be The most economically important process, but in return it has many harmful environmental impacts.

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Energy conversion efficiency

The energy conversion process takes place within both simple devices and sophisticated devices, as energy transformation can occur within an electric car game where the electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy, or inside a car engine which converts the chemical energy of gasoline into mechanical energy, [7] and when converting energy from Another form of this energy is wasted, and some conversion processes require a large amount of energy to obtain a small amount of the new form of energy, but these processes are ineffective, so it is important to reduce the costs of energy production by accessing transformations Effective where less energy is wasted.

 For example, the Incandescent Bulbs lamp is used for lighting, as it converts electrical energy into radiant energy that includes visible light that is being used, and infrared radiation that is lost energy due to lack of use, which appears as heat that can be felt when Touching the glass of the lamp, so lamps are produced with greater electrical efficiency than incandescent bulbs such as fluorescent lights that produce the same amount of visible light that is produced in incandescent bulbs but with much less infrared radiation

The energy efficiency of any device expresses the balance between each of the energy entering before the conversion process and the energy produced after the conversion process, and is expressed quantitatively by the following law: device efficiency = useful resulting energy / energy entering

Example

The energy efficiency of any device expresses the balance between each of the energy entering before the conversion process and the energy produced after the conversion process, and is expressed quantitatively by the following law: device efficiency = useful resulting energy / energy entering

sources

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Egelhoff Jr, W. F. (1987). Core-level binding-energy shifts at surfaces and in solids. Surface Science Reports, 6(6-8), 253-415.‏

Sun, M., Yu, J., Huang, X., Xue, H., & Lee, C. S. (2013). β-Phase transformation and energy transfer induced photoluminescence modulation of fluorene based coploymer mono-dispersive nanoparticles. RSC advances, 3(45), 23704-23708.‏

Bouzarovski, S., Tirado Herrero, S., Petrova, S., Frankowski, J., Matoušek, R., & Maltby, T. (2017). Multiple transformations: Theorizing energy vulnerability as a socio-spatial phenomenon. Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography, 99(1), 20-41.‏

Araújo, K. (2014). The emerging field of energy transitions: progress, challenges, and opportunities. Energy Research & Social Science, 1, 112-121.‏

Schaller, R. D., & Klimov, V. I. (2004). High efficiency carrier multiplication in PbSe nanocrystals: implications for solar energy conversion. Physical review letters, 92(18), 186601

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