نموذج اختبار ستيب | تاريخ صناعة الورق History of the paper industry
Read the following passage and then answer the following questions.
(1) The paper we use today is made by machine. Trees are cut up and processed into a
mixture مزيج called wood pulp لب . The pulp, containing tiny fibers, الألياف is pressed
and rolled out to form sheets of paper.
(2) The first man-made material was not paper. About 4,000 years ago, the ancient
Egyptians took the fibrous stems السيقان of the papyrus plants نباتات البردي , flattened them,
laid them crosswise and pressed them down to stick يلتصق them together. When dried,
يجف this made a piece of papyrus ورق البردى that could be written on.
(3) Paper was first made in China around the year 105 CE ( Common Era- Anytime in that year).
by a man called Ts’ailun. He found a way to make paper from the stringy ( tough) inner
bark of the mulberry tree. The bark لحاء الشجرة was pounded دُقّ بقوة in water to separate
the fibers. This mixture was then poured يُصب into a bamboo خيزران tray صينية to let the
water drain out يخرج . After that, the soft mat of paper was moved into a smooth, flat
surface to dry. Later, someone discovered that the paper could be improved by brushing
it with starch نشا to make it stronger.
4) Chinese traders تجار travelled around Asia as far as Samarkand. سمرقند There, they
met with Arab merchants تجار who learned the secret of making paper and took it to
Spain. afterwards, بعد ذلك the art of papermaking صناعة الورق spread throughout the rest
(5) Since then, many kinds of machines have been invented and improved methods
discovered for making paper. One of the most important, for example, was a machine
developed in France in 1798. This machine could make a continuous sheet or web of
paper. Before, paper could only be produced in separate sheets.
1. According to paragraph (2) what did the early Egyptians use to make
their writing material?
a. Mulberry bark
b. wood pulp
2. The word “ them “ in paragraph 2 refers to…………………….
a. ancient Egyptians
b. writing materials
c. papyrus stems
3. According to the text, the first real paper was made in…………………
4. According to the text, who introduced the paper-making process to
b. the Arabs
c. the Spanish
d. Chinese traders
5. According to the text, which component is necessary for making both
paper and papyrus?
a. tree bark
b. tree wood
c. plant starch
d. fibrous material
6. Which sentence in paragraph (3) contains a word meaning “ to strike
repeatedly, especially with a hand or a tool”?
a. Sentence No.
2 b. Sentence No.
3 c. Sentence No.
5 d. Sentence No.